戏说“酒”字在汉英词典中

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04-28  作者:  来源:英语世界

戏说“酒”字在汉英词典中

(选自《英语世界》2016年第2期)

文/肖福寿1 陆谷孙2

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2014年,美国有线电视新闻网(CNN)曾公布“Top 10”世界十大最爱喝酒的国家(heaviest drinking nations)排名。根据这项排名,中国位于世界第二。看看中国的酒文化,如夏朝的“杜康造秫酒”、商代的“酒色文化”、周代的“酒祭文化”和“酒仪文化”、秦汉年间的“酒政文化”、三国时期的劝酒之风、魏晋南北朝时期的“酒财文化”、唐代的“酒章文化”和“酒催诗兴”、明清两代的“酒域文化”,还有诸多酒礼和酒俗,如元旦饮椒柏酒、正月十五饮填仓酒、端午饮菖蒲酒、中秋饮桂花酒、重阳饮菊花酒,足可成为民俗研究的一部分。
检阅一下有关“酒”的说法,再罗列一下这些说法如何译成英语,饶有趣味。本文选取汉英词典编者们自以为迻译尚有特点的某些表达法,与广大读者共享或请质疑、指谬,权作汉英比较的一席戏说。

一、“酒”字的界定
1.“饮料名”之意:① alcoholic drink ② wine ③ spirit(s) ④liquor
例1:美~佳人 fine wine and beautiful women
例2:花间一壶~,独酌无相亲。 Holding a pot of wine among the flowers, I drink it all by myself.
例3:~被认为既是生活中所有问题的原因,又是解决办法。 Alcohol is considered to be both the cause of, and solution to all of life’s problems.
例4:劝君更尽一杯~,西出阳关无故人。 I now urge you to drink up this cup of wine; no friend out beyond West Yangguan will dine and wine you.

2.“饮酒”之意:① to drink wine ② to have a drink
例:文王诰教小子有正有事,无彝~。 King Wen admonished and instructed the young nobles charged with office or in any employment that they should not ordinarily consume alcohol.

3.“酒筵”之意:① a feast ② a banquet ③ a treat
例1:办一桌~多少钱? How much does a feast cost?
例2:几时办婚礼~? When is a wedding feast arranged to take place?

4.“姓”之意:Jiu

二、“酒”的种类
1.白酒 ① spirit(s) ② liquor
例1:~红人面,黄金黑世心。 Just as colourless liquor reddens people’s faces, so yellow gold blackens their hearts.
例2:中国人爱喝~,醉了就喝醒酒汤。 Chinese people, who are crazy about alcohol, sober themselves by eating de-intoxicating soup.

2.红酒 red wine
例:品~ sample red wine

3.黄酒 ① yellow rice wine ② yellow millet wine ③ Shaoxing wine
例:约在三千多年前,中国人就开始大规模酿制~。 Chinese people began to mass-brew yellow rice wine approximately more than 3,000 years ago.

4.米酒 rice wine
例:酿糯~ brew glutinous rice wine

5.葡萄酒 grape wine
例:醇香的~ full-bodied wine

6.烧酒 white liquor
例:~类 high-proof liquors

7.药酒 ① medicated wine ② medicinal liquor
例:调制~ concoct medicated liquor

三、与“酒”有关的词语
1.酒店 ① a wineshop ② a pub ③ a hotel ④ an inn ⑤ a restaurant
例:~式公寓 a serviced apartment

2.酒色 ① wine and women ② sensual pleasure ③ flushed complexion after drinking ④ drunkenness ⑤ drunken state ⑥ colour of wine
例1:纵情~ ① to indulge oneself in sex and alcohol ② to lead a sensual life
例2:~财气 ① wine, woman, wealth and power ② various kinds of evil temptations ③ all sorts of allurements
例3:~纯正。 The wine looks fine and pure.
例4:~天 ① overcast ② rainy ③ wine and women ④ sensual pleasure
例5:~之徒 ① one who lusts after wine and women ② one who wallows in wine and women ③ a libertine ④ a debauchee
例6:~祸之媒。 Alcohol and sex are the agents of disaster.
例7:~醉男人。 Wine and women intoxicate men.

3.酒食 ① food and wine ② meals with drink ③ relishes to go with wine
例1:~征逐 ① to vie in feasting each other ② to invite each other to parties
例2:有~先生馔,曾是以为孝乎? When the young have wine and food and set them before their elders, is this to be considered filial piety?
例3:子有~,何不日鼓瑟? You have spirits and viands; why not daily play with lute?

4.酒水 ① drinks ② beverages and alcohol ③ a feast ④ a banquet
例1:办了一桌~ to give a feast
例2:结婚后补办~ to throw a feast after the marriage
例3:~免费。 Drinks are free of charge.
例4:这一桌饭菜加~共五百元。 The meal amounts to 500 yuan, beverages included.

四、与“饮酒行为”有关的词语
1.酒胆 ① courage to drink ② guts to drink ③ big guts after drinking ④ Dutch courage
例:他是有~的,没饭力的。 ① He dares to drink but has no appetite for food. ② He is strong without feeble within.

2.酒风 ① alcoholic apoplexy ② drunken fit ③ drunken antics
例1:撒/发~ throw a drunken fit
例2:三国时期的~极“盛”,~剽悍、嗜酒如命。 During the Three Kingdoms Period, people were addicted to drink like crazy due to the prevalent and rampant drunken antics.

3.酒后 ① after drinking ② under the influence of wine ③ influenced by alcohol
例1:~戏笑之言 ① some remarks made in jest after drinking ② a few jesting remarks made under the influence of wine
例2:~茶余 ① over a glass of wine and a cup of tea ② at one’s leisure ③ in one’s free time
例3:~乱性 inappropriate behaviour after drinking
例4:~失态 to forget oneself after a few drinks
例5:~失言 to make an indiscreet remark under the influence of alcohol
例6:~耳热。 Ears start to burn after having a drink.
例7:~见真情。 Truth comes out after the wine is drunken.
例8:~吐真言。 ① In vino veritas. ② In wine there is truth. ③ Wine in, truth out. ④ To wine and whine.
例9:~无德。 ① to get drunk and ignore all decorum ② He who has drunk too much has no manners. ③ One’s decorum becomes loose when drunk.

4.酒驾 ① driving under the influence ② DUI ③ drunk driving ④ driving while intoxicated ⑤ DWI
例1:呼吸测醉器检查后被确定极度~ ① be found driving under intense influence ② DUI after a breathalyzer test
例2:我对警察说:“醉驾?宿醉?没有,头脑清醒着呢,什么问题也没有。” I told the police: “DUI? Hung over? No. Hung under, if anything.”

5.酒劲 ① tipsy feeling ② drinking capacity ③ kick
例1:借着~胡说八道 talk nonsense when intoxicated
例2:比~看谁能喝。 Let’s have a drinking competition to see who has more capacity for liquor.
例3:那种威士忌酒很有劲儿。 That whisky has quite a kick.

6.酒力 ① capacity for alcohol ② capacity for alcoholic drinks ③ kick ④ potency (of alcohol) ⑤ stimulating effect of liquor ⑥ influence of alcohol
例1:不胜~ unable to hold much wine
例2:~突然爆发。 The wine strikes with a sudden effect.

7.酒量 ① capacity for alcohol ② drinking capacity
例:~再大也是要醉的。 Even if one is a heavy drinker, intoxication is inevitable.

8.酒令 ① drinker’s wager game [in which the person who loses drinks wine as a forfeit] ② to supervise the drinking
例1:行~ play a drinking game
例2:~大如军令。 Drinking games are to be observed more rigorously than military orders.
例3:唐朝酒肆日益增多,~战风行。 In the Tang Dynasty, wineshops sprang up like mushrooms and drinking games were in vogue.

五、与“饮酒者”有关的词语
1.酒鬼 ① a drunkard ② an alkie/alky ③ an inebriate ④ a toper ⑤ a sot ⑥ a tippler
例1:烂醉如泥的~ be as drunk as a skunk
例2:在街上闹事的~ drunkards up to roguery in the street

2.酒神 ① the God of Wine [ie, Dionysus in Greek myth¬ology and Bacchus in Roman mythology] ② a heavy drinker ③ a winebag
例:~之害甚于海神。 Bacchus has drowned more men than Neptune.

3.酒仙 ① the Immortal of the Wine Cup ② a great lover of wine ③ a winebibber ④ a brewmaster

六、与“酒”有关的成语或俗语
1.对酒当歌 ① One should sing out loud while drinking. ② One should accomplish something in life. ③ Make merry while the sun shines.
例:~,人生几何? Let’s drink and be merry, for life is too short.

2.今朝有酒今朝醉。 ① Drink today while you can. ② Make merry while you can. ③ Gather ye rosebuds while ye may. ④ Carpe diem. ⑤ YOLO (You Only Live Once).
例:~,明日愁来明日愁。 Drink today while you can; worry not about tomorrow’s worries.

3.酒不解真愁。 Wine can never dispel real sadness.

4.酒不醉人人自醉。 ① It is not the wine that intoxicates drinkers but the drinkers themselves are intoxicated. ② One gets high for reasons other than mere drinking.
例:~,色不迷人人自迷。 Wine doesn’t make men drunk, men get themselves intoxicated; lust doesn’t overpower men, men surrender themselves to it.

5.酒多伤身,气大伤人。 Much drinking does harm to your health, great anger hurts yourself and other people.

6.酒逢知己千杯少。 ① A thousand cups are too little when two bosom friends drink together. ② When one drinks with a bosom friend, his drinking capacity is unusually large. ③ Friends make happy hours.
例:~,话不投机半句多。 ① Friends make happy hours while enemies make difficult ones. ② Among bosom friends, a thousand cups of wine are too few; when the talk turns sour, even one word is more than enough.

7.酒好客自来。 ① Good wine needs no bush. ② One who has real ability and learning needs no boast. ③ Goods of quality or people of ability will attract notice without promotion. ④ If a man build a better mouse trap, the world will beat a path to his door.

8.酒老味醇,人老识深。 ① Wine mellows with year and man sophisticates with age. ② Wine and judgment mellow with age.

9.酒能成事,酒能败事。 ① Liquor can both accomplish and ruin things. ② Drinking can make or mar a great undertaking.

10.酒肉朋友好找,患难之交难逢。 It’s easy to find fair-weather friends, but difficult to meet friends in adversity.

11.酒是英雄胆。 Liquor gives courage.

12.酒香不怕巷子深。 ① The smell of wine is never blocked by the deep, long lane. ② Good wine needs no bush. ③ High-quality goods or really talented people need no advertisement.
例:现在这个年代,已经不是“~”的年代了。 Ours is no longer an age in which good wine needs no bush.

13.酒消百愁。 Liquor dispels all worries.

顺便说,本文素材主要取自《中华汉英大词典》(陆谷孙主编),而诸如“酒逋”“酒德”“酒礼”“酒绿灯红”“酒头”“酒政”“酒中蛇”等许多与“酒”有关的其他英文表达法,更待我们共同探索。 □


注释:
1.1964年生,南京大学博士,哈佛大学访问学者,现为上海大学教授、英语系主任,主要从事英语语块学、ESL写作以及词典编纂研究。
2.复旦大学杰出教授,《英汉大词典》《中华汉英大词典》主编。

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