时空穿梭等科学幻想将成现实

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12-08  作者:  来源:英语世界

Time Travel, Teleportation and Invisibility Cloaks Will All Exist by 2100
时空穿梭等科学幻想将成现实

(选自《英语世界》2015年第12期)

文/萨拉•格里菲思  译/逸心  审订/馨心
By Sarah Griffiths

2015-12封面.jpg

Time travel and teleportation1 are staples in many sci-fi films, such as Star Trek. But some physicists say they will likely become possible before the end of this cen¬tury.
时空穿梭和远距传物是《星际迷航》等许多科幻影片中的常见桥段,但有些物理学家表示,在本世纪结束前,这些都可能成为现实。

[2] While time travel may be the most ambitious2 feat of engineering, they say that it might be possible by 2100, while space tourism and invisibility cloaks will probably become available within just 15 years.
〔2〕尽管时空穿梭可能是工程学中最难实现的创举,但物理学家们称,到2100年,时空穿梭或许能成为现实,而太空旅行和隐形斗篷可能在短短15年内就能实现。

[3] Physicists from Imperial Col¬lege London and the University of Glasgow predicted when “sci-fi tech¬nologies” as seen in Star Trek, Star Wars, Back to the Future and Harry Potter will probably become scientific fact during the lifetimes of current school children.
〔3〕帝国理工学院和格拉斯哥大学的物理学家们预言:《星际迷航》《星球大战》《回到未来》《哈利•波特》这些电影中出现的“科幻技术”很可能在当前学龄儿童的有生之年变为科学事实。

[4] In research among a panel of top UK scientists and a study of 11-16 year olds commissioned by The Big Bang Fair3, scientists said that telepor¬tation could become a daily activity by 2080.
〔4〕根据对英国顶级科学家进行的研究,以及受“大爆炸”科技博览会委托对一组11-16岁青少年展开的一项调查,科学家们称,到2080年远距传物可能变为一项日常活动。

[5] The children polled thought time travel, which is seen in Back to the Future, might be possible 63 years from now, but scientists were not quite so optimistic.
〔5〕参与调查的孩子们认为,《回到未来》中所见的时空穿梭也许63年内就能实现,但是科学家们却没那么乐观。

[6] Colin Stuart, author of The Big Questions in Science, estimates humans will be able to jump ahead to see our future by 2100—just 85 years away. “Time travel to the future has already been achieved, but only in tiny amounts,” he said.
“The record is 0.02 seconds set by cosmonaut4 Sergei Krikalev. While that doesn’t sound too impressive, it does show that time travel to the future is possible and that the amount of time travel couldn’t be far greater.
“If you travelled through space on a big loop at 10 per cent the speed of light for what seemed to you like six months, approximately six months and one day would have passed on Earth.
“You’d have time travelled a day into the future. Travel at the same speed for 10 years and you’ll time travel nearly three weeks into the future.
“I would say we are looking at 2100 as a very optimistic timescale5 for travelling weeks into the future.”
〔6〕《科学中的重大问题》一书的作者科林•斯图尔特估计,到2100年人类将能穿越到未来,从现在算起这也只需要85年的时间。他说:“前往未来的时空穿梭已经实现了,只是穿梭的时空非常有限。
“苏联宇航员谢尔盖•克里卡廖夫创造了0.02秒的纪录。虽然那听起来没什么了不起的,但它的确展示出时空穿梭到未来是可能的,而且时空穿梭的时间不会太久。
“如果你以相当于光速10%的速度沿环形轨道在太空穿梭6个月,那么地球上应该已经过了约6个月零1天的时间。
“也就是说你向未来穿梭了一天。以同样的速度穿行十年,那么你将会向未来穿梭将近三周时间。
“我想说的是,我们非常看好在2100年实现穿越到数周后的未来。”

[7] Teleportation however, which is a key feature in Star Trek, could become a regular occurrence by 2080, according to Dr Mary Jacquiline Romero from the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Glasgow.
The polled children were just two years out, predicting this will happen in 63 years.
〔7〕而格拉斯哥大学物理与天文学学院的玛丽•杰奎琳•罗梅罗博士认为,到2080年,《星际迷航》中的一个重要设定,即远距传物,可能会成为一种常态。
参与调查的孩子们仅比玛丽•杰奎琳•罗梅罗博士少算了两年,他们预测63年内将会实现远距传物。

[8] “Teleporting a person, atom by atom, will be very difficult… but perhaps developments in chemistry or molecular biology will allow us to do it more quickly,” she explained.
“The good thing about teleporta¬tion is that there is no fundamental law telling us that it cannot be done and with technical advances I would estimate teleportation that we see in the films will be with us by 2080.”
She said that physicists have achieved reliable teleportation, but it has only been done with electrons so far.
“To put this into perspective when thinking about human telepor¬tation, an atom can have many elec¬trons and a person is made of billions of atoms,” she said.
〔8〕她解释称:“要以原子为单位实现人的远距传送将非常困难……但是或许化学或分子生物学的发展可能会加快这一进程。
“关于远距传物,好在没有基本法则告诉我们这是无法实现的,据我估计,随着科技的进步,电影中见到的远距传物将在2080年之前出现在我们生活中。”
她说,物理学家已经实现了可靠的远距传物,但目前为止只能通过电子完成。
“从这个角度来看人的远距传送的话,实际上一个原子可能有许多个电子,而一个人是由数十亿个原子组成的。”她说。

[9] However, we may get our hands on Harry Potter-style invisibili¬ty cloaks and be able to go on holiday in space in just 15 years’ time. Chris Phillips, Professor of Experimental Solid State Physics at Imperial College London said: “One way to create an ‘invisibility cloak’ is to use adaptive camouflage, which involves taking a film of the background of an object or person and projecting it onto the front to give the illusion of vanishing.
“We’re actually not that far away from this becoming a reality—rudimentary technology versions of this have already been created—but the main problem is that the fibre-like structures in the adaptive camouflage need to be so tightly woven that it’s incredibly labour intensive.
“With developments such as 3D printing allowing us to create previously impossible materials, it’s entire¬ly feasible that we could see a Harry Potter-like invisibility cloak within the next 10 to 20 years.”
〔9〕但是,也许在短短15年内,我们就能获得哈利•波特那样的隐形斗篷,并能去太空度假了。帝国理工学院实验固体物理学教授克里斯•菲利普斯说:“一种可以创造‘隐形斗篷’的方法就是自适应伪装,即,将人或物的背景录影,然后把它投射为前景,造成人或物体消失的错觉。
“事实上我们离实现这个技术并不远,隐形斗篷的基本技术已经被研制出来了,但主要问题是自适应伪装的类纤维结构需要非常紧密地编织在一起,需要高强度的劳动。
“随着3D打印等技术的发展,我们得以创造以前不可能创造出的材料,未来10到20年里我们完全可能看到类似哈利•波特穿的那种隐形斗篷。”

[10] The panel of school children surveyed dramatically underestimated when they might be able to be tour¬ists in space, believing that it will take another 30 years’ time before this be¬comes a feature of their lives.
〔10〕参与调查的学生对人类何时能到太空旅行的估计太保守了,他们以为还要再过30年,太空旅行才能变成一种日常活动。

[11] However, commercial space flights are expected to blast off in 2015 with Virgin Galactic offering suborbital flights. SpaceShipTwo is projected to fly to a height of 68 miles (110 km), going beyond the defined boundary of space 62 miles (100 km) and lengthening the experience of weightlessness for its passengers.
〔11〕然而,借助维珍银河公司提供的亚轨道飞行,商业宇宙飞船预计将于2015年投入运营。太空船2号预计投放至68英里(110千米)的高度,超过定义的62英里(100千米)处的太空边界,为乘客延长了失重体验的时间。

[12] Paul Jackson, CEO of Engi¬neering UK, said: “The amazing and seemingly impossible things they see in films and television is acting as a stimulant for young people to think about what they could be capable of doing in the future.
“Almost a fifth of young people surveyed said they dream of becoming a lightsaber developer and 22 per cent want to be a teleporting instructor.
“More than a quarter even said they would consider a career as a time travel engineer, so we will need to think care¬fully about how we could provide useful careers advice for that 27 per cent.” ■
〔12〕英国工程公司的CEO保罗•杰克逊说:“年轻人在电影和电视中看到的那些似乎不太可能的惊人之事会激励他们去思索未来能做什么。
“接受调查的年轻人中,近1/5的人说梦想成为光剑研发员,22%的人想成为远距传物教练。
“超过1/4的人甚至说会考虑做时空穿梭工程师,因此我们将需要认真考虑如何为这27%的人提供有用的职业建议。” □

注释:
1. 通过光传播对物理对象或其特性进行复制或再创造,其过程为:先提取原物的所有信息,然后将这些信息传送到接收地点,接收者依据这些信息,选取与构成原物完全相同的基本单元(如:原子),制造出原物完美的复制品。遗憾的是,量子力学的不确定性原理不允许精确地提取原物的全部信息,因此这个复制品不可能是完美的。
2. 需要极大努力(或技能、进取心、胆量等)的,费力的。
3. “大爆炸”科技博览会是英国面向青少年开展的最大规模的科学和工程学庆典,每年举办一次,参赛对象为年龄在7到19岁之间的青少年,旨在鼓励青少年在科学、技术、工程及数学(science, technology, engineering, and math, 简称STEM)等方面有所建树。
4. (苏联的)宇航员,航天员。
5. (事情发生或完成所需要的)一段时间,期限。

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杂志简介

由商务印书馆主办的《英语世界》杂志创刊于1981年。该刊是一本面向大学师生及其他英语爱好者的阅读学习类刊物,系中国第一家英汉对照的英语学习杂志。该刊宗旨是“文拓视野、译悦心灵”,向以内容新颖、形式活泼而著称。创刊以来,由于选文隽永雅致,刊中文章经常受到《读者》、《青年文摘》等杂志转载。先后荣获 “编校质量奖”、“全国百种重点社科期刊”、“国家期刊提名奖”、 “优秀期刊奖”等荣誉。2009年,中国期刊协会授予该刊“新中国60年有影响力的期刊”证书。
欢迎在邮局订购《英语世界》杂志,邮发代号为2-445

主编简介

  • 陈羽纶陈羽纶(1917~2010),《英语世界》杂志首任主编,教授级资深编审。 曾多年担任英语教科书、英语读物、英语词典的编译及审订工作。1988年作为翻译家被收入《中国翻译家词典》,1988~1989年美国纽约大学、英国布鲁内尔大学与英国基尔大学访问学者。1991年被国家人事部定为早期回国定居有特殊贡献专家,享受国务院发放一级津贴待遇。2003年12月获中国出版工作者协会、中国韬奋基金会颁发的第八届中国韬奋出版奖。

  • 徐式谷徐式谷(1935~ ),江苏扬州人,《英语世界》第二任主编,北京商务印书馆编审,前副总编辑,中国译协理事、副秘书长,重庆大学兼职教授,第九届、第十届全国政协委员。有《笛福文选》等译著多种,并发表过多篇译学文论,被中国翻译协会授予“资深翻译家”称号,被中国期刊协会授予“新中国60年有影响力期刊人”称号。

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