转基因食品知多少

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06-27  作者:文/世界卫生组织 译/马瑞芝  来源:英语世界

Questions on Genetically Modified Foods
转基因食品知多少
(选自《英语世界》2013年第7期)

文/世界卫生组织   译/马瑞芝
By WHO

2013-7封单.jpg

Q1. What are genetically modified (GM) organisms and GM foods?

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) can be defined as organisms in which the genetic material (DNA) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally. The technology is often called “modern biotechnology” or “gene technology”, sometimes also “recombinant1 DNA technology” or “genetic engineering”. It allows selected individual genes to be transferred from one organism into another, also between non-related species. Such methods are used to create GM plants—which are then used to grow GM food crops.

问题1:什么是转基因生物和转基因食品?

转基因生物(英文简写为GMO)可以定义为遗传物质(DNA)以非自然方式发生改变的生物。这一技术常被称作“现代生物技术”或“基因技术”,有时也被称作“DNA重组技术”或“基因工程”。该技术可以使筛选出的单个基因从一个生物体转移到另一个生物体,还可以在非亲缘物种间转移。人们用这些方法来培育转基因植物——而后用来种植转基因粮食作物。

Q2. Why are GM foods produced?

GM foods are developed—and marketed—because there is some perceived advantage either to the producer or consumer of these foods. This is meant to translate into a product with a lower price, greater benefit (in terms of durability or nutritional value) or both.

The initial objective for developing plants based on GM organisms was to improve crop protection.

问题2:为什么要生产转基因食品?

人们生产并销售转基因食品,是因为这些食品能给生产者或消费者带来可预见的益处。这就意味着通过转基因技术把食品转化成一种更价廉、更物美(保质期长或有较高营养价值)或二者兼而有之的产品。

在转基因生物的基础上开发转基因植物,其初衷是为了增强作物的抵抗力。

Q3. Are GM foods safe?

Different GM organisms include different genes inserted in different ways. This means that individual GM foods and their safety should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and that it is not possible to make general statements on the safety of all GM foods.

GM foods currently available on the international market have passed risk assessments and are not likely to present risks for human health. In addition, no effects on human health have been shown as a result of the consumption of such foods by the general population in the countries where they have been approved.

问题3:转基因食品安全吗?

不同的转基因生物包含以不同方式嵌入的不同基因。这就意味着,对单个转基因食品及其安全性的评估应当区别对待,不可能对所有转基因食品的安全性一概而论。

目前,国际市场上销售的转基因食品都已经通过了风险评估,不大可能危害人体健康。此外,在已经准许销售转基因食品的国家,尚未出现由于摄入转基因食品而对大众健康产生危害的情况。

Q4. How are GM foods regulated nationally?

The way governments have regulated GM foods varies. In some countries GM foods are not yet regulated. Countries which have legislation in place focus primarily on assessment of risks for consumer health. Countries which have provisions for GM foods usually also regulate GMOs in general, taking into account health and environmental risks, as well as control- and trade-related issues (such as potential testing and labelling regimes). In view of the dynamics of the debate on GM foods, legislation is likely to continue to evolve.

问题4:各国对转基因食品是如何管理的?

各国政府对转基因食品的管理方式各异。有些国家还没有对转基因食品进行监管。已有相关立法的国家主要关注对消费者健康风险的评估。针对转基因食品制定法律条文的国家,通常也会从总体上监管转基因生物,考虑它们对健康、环境的危害,以及与管理和贸易相关的问题(比如可能的检测和贴标体系)。鉴于人们对转基因食品的激烈争论,关于转基因食品的立法也有望进一步完善。

Q5. What happens when GM foods are traded internationally?

No specific international regulatory systems are currently in place. However, several international organizations are involved in developing protocols for GMOs.

The Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) is the joint FAO/WHO body responsible for compiling the standards, codes of practice, guidelines and recommendations that constitute the Codex Alimentarius: the international food code. Codex is developing principles for the human health risk analysis of GM foods.

问题5:转基因食品在国际市场上交易时会受到哪些制约?

目前,国际上还没有专门的管理体系。然而,一些国际组织正致力于制定有关转基因生物的规范。

国际食品法典委员会是联合国粮食与农业组织和世界卫生组织共同创建的一个机构,负责编纂国际食品法典,其中包含相关标准、业务条例、准则及建议等。国际食品法典委员会正为转基因食品对人体健康的风险分析制定原则。

Q6. Have GM products on the international market passed a risk assessment?

The GM products that are currently on the international market have all passed risk assessments conducted by national authorities. These different assessments in general follow the same basic principles, including an assessment of environmental and human health risk.  ■

问题6:国际市场上销售的转基因产品都通过风险评估了吗?

目前国际市场上的转基因产品都通过了各国官方的风险评估。这些不同的评估大体上都遵循相同的基本原则,包括对环境和对人体危害的评估。  □

Notes:
1. 重组的。

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由商务印书馆主办的《英语世界》杂志创刊于1981年。该刊是一本面向大学师生及其他英语爱好者的阅读学习类刊物,系中国第一家英汉对照的英语学习杂志。该刊宗旨是“文拓视野、译悦心灵”,向以内容新颖、形式活泼而著称。创刊以来,由于选文隽永雅致,刊中文章经常受到《读者》、《青年文摘》等杂志转载。先后荣获 “编校质量奖”、“全国百种重点社科期刊”、“国家期刊提名奖”、 “优秀期刊奖”等荣誉。2009年,中国期刊协会授予该刊“新中国60年有影响力的期刊”证书。
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主编简介

  • 陈羽纶陈羽纶(1917~2010),《英语世界》杂志首任主编,教授级资深编审。 曾多年担任英语教科书、英语读物、英语词典的编译及审订工作。1988年作为翻译家被收入《中国翻译家词典》,1988~1989年美国纽约大学、英国布鲁内尔大学与英国基尔大学访问学者。1991年被国家人事部定为早期回国定居有特殊贡献专家,享受国务院发放一级津贴待遇。2003年12月获中国出版工作者协会、中国韬奋基金会颁发的第八届中国韬奋出版奖。

  • 徐式谷徐式谷(1935~ ),江苏扬州人,《英语世界》第二任主编,北京商务印书馆编审,前副总编辑,中国译协理事、副秘书长,重庆大学兼职教授,第九届、第十届全国政协委员。有《笛福文选》等译著多种,并发表过多篇译学文论,被中国翻译协会授予“资深翻译家”称号,被中国期刊协会授予“新中国60年有影响力期刊人”称号。

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